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Denver, Colorado
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flag Seal

Nickname: "The Mile-High City"
Location of Denver in Colorado
Coordinates 3945'03?N, 10454'35?W
City-County Denver (coextensive)
Mayor John Hickenlooper (D)
Geographical characteristics
  City 154.9 mi / 401.3 km
    Land   153.3 mi / 397.2 km
    Water   1.6 mi / 4.1 km
  City (2004) 556,835 (latest official est.)
    Density   1399.8/km
  Metro 2,830,000
Elevation 1,609 m
Time zone
  Summer (DST) MST (UTC-7)
Website: http://www.denvergov.org/
The City and County of Denver is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Colorado. It is located on the plains just east of the Rocky Mountains and forms the heart of the Denver-Aurora metropolitan area. The central downtown district is on the east side of the South Platte River, near its confluence with Cherry Creek, approximately fifteen miles from the foothills.
Denver is the county seat of, and shares the same borders with, Denver County one of the few consolidated city-counties in the United States. According to 2004 Census estimates [1], the city has a population of 556,835 and ranks as the 25th-largest in the United States and the sixth-largest state capital. The Denver Regional Council of Governments estimated that the 2005 population of the city was 579,744 [2] (unofficial). The population of the Denver-Aurora metropolitan area was about 2,330,146, making it the twenty second-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. [3]. The city claims to have the tenth largest downtown in the United States [4].
Denver is nicknamed "The Mile-High City" because its official elevation, measured on the fifteenth step of the state capitol building's west side, is one statute mile (5,280 feet or 1,609 meters) above sea level. Also, a row of seats in the upper deck of Coors Field, home of Major League Baseball's Colorado Rockies (NL), is marked in purple (one of the team's colors) to indicate that the row is one mile above sea level. The city's elevation, as surveyed at Denver International Airport, is 5,431 ft (1,655 m).
Denver has also been known historically as the Queen City of the Plains because of its important role in the agricultural industry of the plains regions along the foothills of the Front Range. Several US Navy ships have been named USS Denver in honor of the city.

1 History
2 Geography
2.1 Climate
2.2 Neighborhoods
3 Demographics
3.1 Diversity
3.2 Growth and statistics
3.2.1 Income
4 Economy
5 Law and government
5.1 Notable political action and events
6 Transportation
6.1 Grid system
6.2 Highways
6.3 Mass transportation
6.4 Trains
6.5 Airports
7 Sister cities
8 Education
8.1 Public schools
8.2 Colleges and universities
9 Culture
9.1 Landmarks
9.2 Music
9.3 Sports
9.3.1 Sports teams
9.3.2 Defunct teams
9.3.3 Hosting
9.4 Hostels
10 Famous Denverites
11 Books on Denver

The man Denver would be named for, Kansas Territorial Governor James Denver, would never live to see the Front Range Mile High City.Denver was founded in the Kansas Territory in 1858. That summer a group from Lawrence, Kansas, arrived and established Montana City on the banks of the South Platte River. This was the first settlement in what was later to become the city of Denver. The site faded quickly, however, and was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City by the summer of 1859. The site is now Grant-Frontier Park and includes mining equipment and a log cabin replica.
On November 22 of 1858, General William Larimer, a land speculator from eastern Kansas, placed cottonwood logs to stake a square-mile claim on the hill overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria.
The location was accessible to existing trails and had previously been the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Larimer, along with associates in the Denver City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new emigrants. The name "Denver City" was chosen to honor Kansas territorial governor James W. Denver, in order to ensure that the city would become the county seat of then Arapaho County, Kansas. Ironically, when Larimer named it after Denver, he was unaware that the latter had already resigned as governor. After statehood, Denver remained the seat of Arapahoe County until the creation of Denver County in 1902.
In the first few years, while the town grew, land parcels were often traded freely for grubstakes and in the course of gambling by miners in Auraria. The city was incorporated on November 7, 1861, several months after the formation of the Colorado Territory. In 1865, Denver became the capital of the Colorado Terroritory, and in an 1881 state election, that distinction became permanent [5]. The late 1880's saw a huge rise in city corruption, as crimes bosses, such as Soapy Smith, worked side-by-side with elected officials and the police, to control elections and the gambling elements. By 1890, Denver had grown to be the fifth-largest city west of the Mississippi River, and surpassed Omaha in population by the turn of the 20th century. [6].
The Colorado State CapitolThe era of the 1890s played an important role in Denver's history, as this is when the city began to take on a "big city" image. The 1908 Democratic National Convention was staged to promote Denver's prominence, and to signify the city's participation on the national political and socioeconomic stage.
Denver was selected to host the 1976 Winter Olympics to coincide with Colorado's centennial anniversary, but Colorado voters struck down ballot initiatives allocating public funds to pay for the high costs of the games, so they were moved to Innsbruck, Austria. The movement against hosting the games was based largely on environmental issues and was led by then State Senator Richard Lamm. Lamm was subsequently elected as Colorado governor in 1974.
The cheeseburger was invented in Denver by Louis Ballast who operated the Humpty Dumpty Barrel drive-in. He applied for a patent on his now famous invention in 1935. It has been speculated that he wasnt the first person to add cheese to a hamburger, but nobody has an earlier patent, and no evidence to debunk his claim has emerged.[7]
Denver was an important place for the "beat generation." Beat icon Neal Cassady was raised on Larimer Street in Denver, and a portion of Jack Kerouac's beat masterpiece On the Road takes place in the city, and is based on the beat's actual experiences in Denver during a road trip. Beat poet Allen Ginsberg lived for a time in the Denver suburb of Lakewood, Colorado, and he helped found the Buddhist college, Naropa University or the "Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa" in nearby Boulder, Colorado.

Main article: Geography of Denver, Colorado
Denver is located at 3943'35" North, 10457'56" West (39.726287, -104.965486)GR1 in the Colorado Front Range region. It has the Rocky Mountains to the west and the great plains to the east.
Satellite image of the Denver Metropolitan areaAccording to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 401.3 km (154.9 mi). 397.2 km (153.4 mi) of it is land and 4.1 km (1.6 mi) of it is water. The total area is 1.03% water.

Denver has a semi-arid climate with four distinct seasons. While Denver is located on the Great Plains, the weather of the city and surrounding area is heavily influenced by the proximity of the Rocky Mountains to the west. The climate, while generally mild compared to the mountains to the west and the plains further east, can often be very unpredictable. Measurable amounts of snow have fallen in Denver as late as Memorial Day and as early as Labor Day, and trace amounts have been recorded in every month of the year.
The average temperature in Denver is 50.1F (10.1C), and the average yearly precipitation is 15.81 in (402mm). The season's first snowfall generally occurs around October 19, and the last snowfall is about April 27, averaging 61.6 in (156cm) of seasonal accumulation. Although Denver's Convention and Visitor Bureau claims Denver receives over 300 sunny days a year [8], the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says Denver receives about 250 days of sunshine a year [9].
Denver's winters are cold and dry, and although huge amounts of snow can fall on the mountains just west of the city, the effects of orographic lift dry out the air passing over the Front Range shadowing the city from precipitation for much of the season. Additionally, warm chinook winds can occasionally be felt as air passing over the mountains heats as it descends. Nevertheless, winters are generally cold, with the coldest temperature ever recorded in Denver was recorded on January 9, 1875 at -29F (-34C), though the last time Denver recorded a temperature below -20F (-29C) was in 1990.
Spring brings with it significant changes as Denver can be affected by air masses on all sides, whether arctic air from the north, which occasionally combines with Pacific storm fronts bringing snow to the city. In fact, March is Denver's snowiest month, averaging 11.7 in (29.7 cm) of snow. Additionally, warm air from the Gulf of Mexico can bring the first thunderstorms of the season, and continental warm air can bring summer-like warm and dry conditions.
A view of the raging Rockies from south Denver.Starting in mid-July, the monsoon brings tropical moisture into the city and with it come frequent short (and occasionally severe) late-afternoon thunderstorms. However, despite this tropical moisture, humidity levels during the day generally remain very low. The average high during the summer is 85F (29C) and the average low is 56F (13C).
In the autumn, the tropical monsoon flow dies down and as arctic air begins to approach it can combine with moisture from the Pacific Northwest to bring significant snowfall to the city November is Denver's second snowiest month, and Denver's greatest recorded snowfall from a single storm, 45.7 in (116 cm), fell in late autumn from December 1 to December 6, 1913. [10]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Extreme Daily Maximum F 76 77 84 90 95 104 105 105 97 90 79 79
Average Daily Maximum F 43 47 54 61 71 82 88 86 77 66 52 44
Average Daily Minimum F 15 19 25 34 44 53 59 57 47 36 24 16
Extreme Daily Minimum F -29 -25 -11 -2 19 30 42 40 17 -2 -18 -25
Data recorded from Downtown Denver (1872-1949), Stapleton Airport (1950-2/95), and Denver International Airport (Since 3/95). Averages 1971-2000. [11] [12]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average Precipitation in 0.51 0.49 1.28 1.93 2.32 1.56 2.16 1.82 1.14 0.99 0.98 0.63
Average Snowfall in 7.7 6.3 11.7 9.1 1.3 T 0.0 0.0 2.1 4.1 10.7 8.7
Precipitation data recorded from Stapleton Airport (1971-2/95), and Denver International Airport (3/95-2000). Snowfall data recorded from Stapleton Airport (1971-2000). Averages 1971-2000. [13]

Denver's 79 neighborhoods offer a variety of living experiencesDenver has 79 neighborhoods that the City and community groups use for planning and administration. Although the City's delineation of the neighborhood boundaries is somewhat arbitrary, the City's definitions of its neighborhoods roughly correspond to those used by residents.
Denver also has a number of neighborhoods not reflected in the City's administrative neighborhoods. Sometimes these neighborhoods reflect the way people in an area identify themselves; sometimes they reflect how others, such as real estate developers, have defined those areas.
Among the neighborhoods commonly spoken of are historic and trendy LoDo (short for "Lower Downtown"), part of the City's Union Station neighborhood; Capitol Hill, Washington Park; Uptown, part of the North Capitol Hill neighborhood; Curtis Park, part of the Five Points neighborhood; Alamo Placita, the northern part of the Speer neighborhood; and the Golden Triangle, roughly the Civic Center neighborhood.
See also: List of Neighborhoods in Denver

City of Denver
Population by year [14]
1880 35,629
1890 106,713
1900 133,859
1910 213,381
1920 256,491
1930 287,861
1940 322,412
1950 415,786
1960 493,887
1970 514,678
1980 492,365
1990 467,610
2000 554,636
2005 579,744
As of the censusGR2 of 2005, there are an estimated 579,744 people, 250,906 households, and 119,378 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,396.5/km (3,616.8/mi). There are 268,617 housing units at an average density of 633.1/km (1,639.6/mi).

Main article: Diversity in Denver, Colorado
The racial makeup of the city is 51.9% White, 11.1% Black or African American, about 2.2% Native American, 2.81% Asian American, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 15.59% from other races, and 3.75% from two or more races. 31.68% of the population is Hispanic or Latino of any race, giving Denver one of the highest populations of Hispanics or Latinos in the U.S.
Denver also has a large Jewish population with over 100,000 throughout the city.

Growth and statistics
There are 250,906 households out of which 23.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% are married couples living together, 10.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 50.1% are non-families. 39.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.27 and the average family size is 3.14.
In the city the population is spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 36.1% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 102.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $39,500, and the median income for a family is $48,195. Males have a median income of $34,232 versus $30,768 for females. The per capita income for the city is $24,101. 14.3% of the population and 10.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.3% of those under the age of 18 and 9.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

17th Street, dubbed the "Wall St. of the West," is home to many of Denver's banks, corporations, and financial agencies.Denver's economy is based partially on its geographic position and its connection to some of the major transportation systems of the country. Because Denver is the largest city within 600 miles (the closest city of comparable size is Phoenix, Arizona), it has become a natural location for storage and distribution of goods and services to the Mountain States. Denver is also approximately halfway between the large cities of the Midwest like Chicago and St. Louis and the cities of the West Coast, another benefit for distribution. Over the years, the city has been home to some large corporations in the central United States, making Denver a key trade point for the country.
Geography also allows Denver to have a considerable government presence, with many federal agencies based or having offices in the Denver area. In fact, the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area has more federal workers than any other metropolitan area except for the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. Along with the plethora of federal agencies come many companies based on US defense and space projects. Lockheed-Martin and Ball Aerospace are examples. Being the capital of the state of Colorado also gives many state jobs to Denver.
The Wells Fargo Center (a.k.a. "The Mailbox Building", "The Cash Register Building") in downtown Denver.Denver's position near the mineral-rich Rocky Mountains, encouraged mining and energy companies to spring up in the area. In the early days of the city, gold and silver booms and busts played a large role in the economic success of the city. In the 1970s and early '80s, the energy crisis in America created an energy boom in Denver captured in the soap opera Dynasty. During this time, Denver was built up considerably, with many new downtown skyscrapers built during this time. Eventually the oil prices dropped from $34 a barrel in 1981 to $9 a barrel in 1986, and the Denver economy dropped with it, leaving almost 15,000 oil industry workers in the area unemployed (including mayor John Hickenlooper, a former geologist), and the highest office vacancy rate in the nation (30%)[15]. Energy and mining are still important in Denver's economy today, with companies such as Newmont Mining, Patina Oil and Gas, and Western Gas Resources.
Denver's west-central geographic location in the Mountain Time Zone (UTC -7) also benefits the telecommunications industry by allowing communication with both North American coasts, South America, Europe, and Asia in the same business day. Denver's location on the 105th meridian at over 1 mile in elevation also enables it to be the largest city in the U.S. to offer a 'one-bounce' real-time satellite uplink to six continents in the same business day. Qwest Communications, EchoStar, Starz-Encore, and Comcast are just a few of the telecommunications companies with operations in the Denver area. These and other high-tech companies had a boom in Denver in the mid to late 1990s, but the technology bust in the new millennium caused Denver to lose many of those technology jobs. Recently the Denver area has started making a comeback, with the October 2005 unemployment at 4.7% the lowest since September of 2001 [16]. Denver government and industry leaders are attempting to diversify the Denver economy so that it is less susceptible to boom and bust cycles.
See also: List of companies with Denver area operations

Law and government
Main article: Law and government of Denver, Colorado
Denver's iconic City and County Building (seen here around 1941), is the center of political power for the city.Denver is a consolidated city-county with a non-partisan elected mayor (though they may belong to a particular political party), a 13-member city council and an auditor. The Denver City Council is elected from 11 districts with two at-large council-members and is responsible for passing and changing all laws, resolutions, and ordinances, usually after a public hearing. They can also call for misconduct investigations of Denver's departmental officials.
Denver has a strong mayor/weak city council government. The mayor can approve or veto any ordinances or resolutions approved by the council, makes sure all contracts with the city are kept and performed, signs all bonds and contracts, is responsible for the city budget, and can appoint people to various city departments, organizations, and commissions. However, the council can override the mayor's veto with a nine out of 13 member vote, and the city budget must be approved and can be changed by a simple majority vote of the council. The auditor checks all expenditures and may refuse to allow specific ones, usually based on financial reasons. [17]
All elected officials have four year terms, with a maximum of two terms. While Denver elections are non-partisan, Democrats have long held a virtual monopoly on Denver politics with all elected officials having Democratic Party affiliation. In federal elections, Denverites also tend to vote for Democratic candidates. The office of Denver's Mayor has been occupied by a Democrat since the municipal general election of 1963. The current Mayor, John Hickenlooper, has boasted some approval ratings in the 90% range in recent polls, which could indicate that the Democratic Party will likely remain in control of the office, and Denver's image as a "progressive city" shall continue.
Denver's famous Civic Center is a popular campaign stop in this city with a "liberal" reputation.[edit]
Notable political action and events
In recent years, Denver has taken a stance on helping people who are or become homeless, particularly under the administrations of mayors John Hickenlooper and Wellington Webb. Denver's homeless population is considerably lower than many other major cities, but many residents of the city streets have suffered during Denver's winters. Although mild and dry much of the time, Denver's winters can have brief periods of cold temperatures and varying amounts of snow. As a result, the city has set a national precedent on homeless services, with the creations of a ten-year plan to end homelessness (a plan now becoming popular in other cities as well), a task force and commission to end homelessness, and an expansion on human and civil services through the Denver area.
In 2005, Denver became the first major city in the U.S. to make the private use of less than an ounce of marijuana legal for adults 21 and older. The city voted 53.49%-46.51% in favor of the marijuana legalization measure. It should be noted that this initiative does not usurp state law, which currently treats marijuana possession in much the same way as a speeding ticket, with fines of up to $100 and no jail time [18].
Denver is competing with Minneapolis, New Orleans, and New York[19] to host the 2008 Democratic National Convention, which would coincidently be the centennial of the city's first hosting of the landmark 1908 convention. It also hosted the G7 (now G8) summit between June 20 and June 22 in 1997.


Colfax Ave at Broadway, where the downtown and the normal city grid meet[edit]
Grid system
Most of Denver has a straightforward street grid oriented to the four cardinal directions. Blocks are usually identified in hundreds from the median streets, identified as "0", which are Broadway (the west-east median) and Ellsworth Avenue (the north-south median). Colfax Avenue, the major east-west artery through Denver, is 15 blocks (1500 North) of the median. Avenues north of Ellsworth are numbered (with the exception of Colfax Avenue and a few others), while avenues south of Ellsworth are named.
There is also an older downtown grid system that was designed to be parallel to the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek. Most of the streets downtown and in LoDo run northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast. This system has an unplanned benefit for snow removal; if the streets were in a normal N-S/E-W grid, only the N-S streets would get sun. With the grid pointed to the diagonal directions, the NW-SE streets get sun to melt snow in the morning and the NE-SW streets get it in the afternoon. The NW-SE streets are numbered, while the NE-SW streets are named. The named streets start at the intersection of Colfax Avenue and Broadway with the block-long Cheyenne Place. The numbered streets start underneath the Colfax and I-25 viaducts. There are 27 named and 44 numbered streets on this grid. There are also a few vestiges of the old grid system in the normal grid, such as Park Avenue, Morrison Road, and Speer Boulevard.
Confusion may arise where the two grid systems meet. Fortunately, traffic in downtown Denver is calmer than in many other large cities, and the mountains to the west provide an easy navigational reference.

Denver is primarily served by the interstate highways I-25 and I-70. The intersection of the two interstates is referred to locally as "the mousetrap." I-70 runs east-west from Utah to Kansas. I-25 runs north-south from the New Mexico border through Denver to the Wyoming border. I-225 traverses neighboring Aurora and connects with I-25 in the southeastern corner of Denver. Additionally, I-76 begins from I-70 just west of the city in Arvada. It intersects I-25 north of the city and runs northeast to Nebraska where it ends at I-80. U.S. Route 6 connects downtown Denver to the suburb of Golden.
A highway expansion and transit project, dubbed "T-REX", is currently under construction. The project includes the addition of extra freeway lanes and a light rail line in the I-25 corridor between downtown Denver and the Denver Technological Center. The massive project is slated to be finished in fall of 2006.

Mass transportation
See also: Rail transit in metropolitan Denver
Denver RTD Light Rail car at 16th & StoutMass transportation throughout the Denver-Aurora metropolitan area is managed and coordinated by the Regional Transportation District (RTD). RTD currently operates more than 1,000 buses serving 10,000 bus stops in 38 municipal jurisdictions. Additionally, RTD operates two light rail lines (the C Line and the D Line) with a total of 15.8 miles of track and serving 24 stations. Current RTD local fare is $1.50. FasTracks, an expansion project approved by voters in 2004, will allow light rail to serve cities such as Lakewood, Golden, and Aurora. Commuter rail lines will serve Boulder, Longmont and the Denver International Airport, while light rail is already under construction to the southeast as far as Lone Tree in the I-25 corridor as part of a reconstruction of the highway. The new line will be completed in late 2006.

Train service to Denver is provided by the Amtrak California Zephyr which runs from Chicago west through Denver to San Francisco. Additionally, there is the Ski Train provided by the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad which takes passengers between Denver and the Winter Park Ski Resort. Denver's early years as a major train hub of the west are still very visible today. Trains stop in Denver at historic Union Station, where travelers can meet up with RTD's 16th Street Free MallRide or use light rail to tour the city.

Jeppesen Terminal at DIADenver International Airport (KDEN) is the eleventh busiest airport in the world and sixth in the U.S. In 2005 it handled 43.4 million passengers. In land area it is the largest airport in the United States, covering 53 sq. miles.
Stapleton International Airport was the area's main airport. In 1995, it was replaced by Denver International Airport and closed.
Lowry Air Force Base was used primarily for military flight training. Flight operations stopped in 1966 and the base was closed in 1994.

Sister cities
Denver is the second oldest sister city in the United States in its relationship with Brest, France, started in 1948. In 1947, Amanda Knecht, a teacher at East High School, visited WWII-ravaged Brest. When she came back, she shared her experiences in the city with her students, and her class raised $32,000 in change to help rebuild the children's wing of Brest's hospital. The gift was proceeded with the development of the sister city program with Brest. Denver's Sister Cities International develops programs to foster relations between all the cities. All of Denver's sister cities have parks in the city named after them (except the newest sister city, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, which will eventually have its own park).

Brest, France is Denver's oldest twin city. In addition, it is the U.S.'s second oldest.The list of Denver's sister (aka twinned) cities includes:
Axum, Ethiopia
Brest, France
Chennai, India
Cuernavaca, Mexico
Karmiel, Israel
Kunming, China
Nairobi, Kenya
Potenza, Italy
Takayama, Japan
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
In addition, the Denver Regional Council of Governments (consisting of the city and 51 other local governments) has established a "sister city" relationship with the Baghdad Governorate, one of Iraq's eighteen provinces.

Public schools
Main article: Denver Public Schools
Denver Public Schools (DPS) is the public school system in Denver. It currently educates about 73,000 students in 73 elementary schools, 15 K-8 schools, 17 middle schools, 14 high schools, and 19 charter schools [19]. The first school of what is now DPS was a log cabin that opened in 1859 on the corner of 12th Street between Market and Larimer Streets.

Colleges and universities
Denver's many colleges and universities range in age and study programs. The city boasts Catholic and Jewish institutions, as well as a well-respected health sciences school. In addition to those schools within the city, there are a number of schools located throughout the surrounding metro area.
University of Denver
Metropolitan State College of Denver
University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
Johnson & Wales University
Regis University
Community College of Denver
Heritage College
National American University: Denver
Yeshiva Toras Chaim Talmudical Seminary

The Rocky Mountains west of Denver help people navigate the city by serving as a directional reference.

Denver hosts a great and rich history of culture, and continues to remain a true testament to "Colorful Colorado". Landmarks and historical points of interest include:
The 16th Street Mall, along with the D&F Tower, reminding visitors of Denver's origins16th Street Mall, a street restricted to pedestrians and free shuttles, located in the middle of Downtown Denver and home to many shopping, residential, and office buildings.
Avenue Theater, a professional theater located in the Downtown Denver vicinity.
Black American West Museum, which reflects the history of African Americans in the West and Denver.
Brown Palace Hotel, a historic hotel that has hosted many celebrities, dignitaries, and other important people
Buckhorn Exchange, Denver's oldest restaurant, a historic old-west steakhouse
The Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, where Pope John Paul II celebrated mass twice in 1993Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, where Pope John Paul II celebrated mass twice in August, 1993
Civic Center, a neoclassical park, and the cultural, art and governmental center of Denver
Colorado Convention Center
Colorado State Capitol
Confluence Park, where the city started at the confluence of the South Platte and Cherry Creek.
D&F Tower, when it was built in 1910, it became the tallest building west of the Mississippi
Denver's Downtown Aquarium, a full-sized public aquarium
Denver Art Museum, the largest art museum between Kansas City and San Francisco
Denver Botanic Gardens
Denver Mint, the single largest producer of coins in the world
Denver Museum of Nature and Science
Denver Performing Arts Complex , the second largest performing arts center in the US after New York City's Lincoln Center
Denver Public Library, which serves Denver's educational and entertainment needs from 23 locations and a bookmobile
Denver Zoo
Ellie Caulkins Opera House
Four Mile House, an important stop on the Cherokee Trail and the oldest standing residential building in the metropolitan area
Kirkland Museum of Fine & Decorative Art, a museum featuring works of Vance Kirkland and others
Molly Brown House, where Molly Brown lived in Denver
Red Rocks, a Denver-owned park and outdoor amphitheater located 15 miles west of the city near Morrison, known for its red rock formations and acoustics; U2, The Beatles, and Neil Young have performed there
Richthofen Castle, a castle built by the uncle and godfather of the Red Baron
Six Flags Elitch Gardens - A downtown Amusement Park
Tattered Cover, a very popular independent bookstore with two locations in Denver (LoDo and Cherry Creek), and one in the suburb of Highlands Ranch
The Union Station of Denver, both a significant historical building and hub of the new FasTracks rail networkSakura Square or "Tiny Tokyo," the center of the historical and prominent Japanese community of Denver, first formed around 1944 (arguable)
Union Station, a magnificent three-story building and the hub of the new FasTracks commuter rail network.
Wells Fargo Center, a.k.a. the "cash register" building, one of the city's most identifiable buildings.

Main article: Music in Denver
Red Rocks, Denver's most famous music venueWhile Denver may not be as recognized for historical musical prominence like such cities as Seattle, Los Angeles, Detroit, or New York City, it still manages to have a very active pop, jazz, and classical music scene, which has nurtured several artists and genres to regional, national, and even international attention. Though nearby Boulder, Colorado has its own very distinct music scene, artists based there also play in Denver.

Denver is widely recognized as being one of America's leading sports towns. In particular, the Denver Broncos of the NFL have been able to draw crowds of nearly 70,000 since their AFL origins in the early 1960s. In the 1980s and '90s, one of the top priorities of former Mayor Federico Pea was bringing major league baseball to the city, an effort which culminated in the construction of Coors Field and the creation of the Colorado Rockies as an expansion franchise in 1993. Denver is also home to the NHL team, the Colorado Avalanche, who have won two Stanley Cups (1996 and 2001) while in Denver, as well as the NBA team, the Denver Nuggets. The home arena of both the Avalanche and the Nuggets is the Pepsi Center.
See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports

Sports teams
Club Sport Founded League Venue Logo
Denver Broncos Football 1960 National Football League; AFC INVESCO Field at Mile High 
Colorado Rockies Baseball 1993 Major League Baseball; NL Coors Field 
Colorado Avalanche Ice Hockey 1995 National Hockey League Pepsi Center 
Denver Nuggets Basketball 1967 National Basketball Association Pepsi Center 
Colorado Rapids Soccer 1996 Major League Soccer INVESCO Field at Mile High 
Colorado Crush Arena Football 2003 Arena Football League Pepsi Center 
Colorado Mammoth Lacrosse 2003 National Lacrosse League Pepsi Center 
Denver Outlaws Lacrosse 2006 Major League Lacrosse INVESCO Field at Mile High 

Defunct teams
Denver Bears former minor league (AAA) baseball team (1948-1992)
Denver Zephyrs originally, the Denver Bears (moved to New Orleans, 1992)
Denver Spurs former World Hockey Association team (1975-76)
Colorado Rockies former National Hockey League team (1976-82); now known as the New Jersey Devils
Denver Avalanche! former Major Indoor Soccer League team (1980-1982); suspended operations.
Colorado Flames former Central Hockey League minor league team (1983-1984); associated to the Calgary Flames
Denver Gold former United States Football League team (1983-1985)
Denver Dynamite former Arena Football League team (1987, 1989-1991)
Denver Grizzlies former International Hockey League team (1994-1995)

The National Western Stock Show, the largest stock show in the world, is held annually every January in Denver, and attracts visitors from all over the world.
Awarded the 1976 Winter Olympics, which voters rejected due to a 300 percent rise in costs and worries about environmental impact
Denver hosted the 1990 NCAA Final Four at McNichols Arena.
The inaugural Ultimate Fighting Championship (November 12, 1993)
The 1998 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at Coors Field.
The 2001 NHL All-Star Game and FanFest at Pepsi Center.
Denver hosted the 2005 NBA All-Star Game at the Pepsi Center.
The 2008 NCAA Frozen Four Tournament will be hosted in Denver.
Denver is to host a yearly race on the Champ Car World Series circuit, the Grand Prix of Denver

Denver International Youth Hostel
InnKeeper of the Rockies
Melbourne International Hotel & Hostel

Famous Denverites
Federico Fabian Pea, Denver Mayor 1983-91, was an influential figure in Denver's historyMain article: List of famous Denverites

Books on Denver
Louisa Ward Arps (1998). Denver in Slices.
Phil Goodstein. Denver in our time: A people's history of the modern Mile High City.
Joey Porcelli. Rise and Dine, Breakfast in Denver & Boulder. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 1555915094.
A large portion of Jack Kerouac's beat classic On the Road takes place in Denver.

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